The Trump administration on Monday imposed sanctions on Turkey, a NATO ally, over its purchase of a Russian air defence system, setting the stage for further confrontation between the two nations as President-elect Joe Biden prepares to take office.
The move comes at a delicate time in relations between Washington and Ankara. The two have been at odds for more than a year over Turkey’s acquisition from Russia of the S-400 missile defence system, along with Turkish actions in Syria, the eastern Mediterranean and during the conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan.
The sanctions — which were required under U.S. law dating to 2017 if the administration deemed there to be violations — add another element of uncertainty to the relationship as U.S. President Donald Trump winds down his term. The move is the first time the Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA) has been used to penalize a U.S. ally.
The U.S. had previously kicked Turkey out of its F-35 stealth fighter development and training program over the purchase, but had taken no further steps despite persistent warnings from American officials who have long complained about the purchase of the S-400, which they say is incompatible with NATO equipment and a potential threat to allied security.
“The United States made clear to Turkey at the highest levels and on numerous occasions that its purchase of the S-400 system would endanger the security of U.S. military technology and personnel and provide substantial funds to Russia’s defence sector, as well as Russian access to the Turkish armed forces and defence industry,” Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said.
“Turkey nevertheless decided to move ahead with the procurement and testing of the S-400, despite the availability of alternative, NATO-interoperable systems to meet its defence requirements,” he said in a statement.
“I urge Turkey to resolve the S-400 problem immediately in co-ordination with the United States,” he said.
“Turkey is a valued ally and an important regional security partner for the United States, and we seek to continue our decades-long history of productive defence-sector co-operation by removing the obstacle of Turkey’s S-400 possession as soon as possible.”
Turkey’s foreign ministry said in a statement it “condemns and rejects” the U.S. sanctions, saying Washington’s one-sided sanctions were beyond understanding.
“Turkey will take the necessary steps against this decision, which will inevitably affect our relations in a negative way, and reciprocate in a way and time it sees fit,” the statement said.
The ministry repeated Turkey’s claim that the S-400s would not affect NATO systems. It called on the U.S. to “turn back as soon as possible from this bad mistake,” adding that Ankara was ready for dialogue and diplomacy.
The sanctions target Turkey’s Presidency of Defence Industries, the country’s military procurement agency, its chief Ismail Demir and three other senior officials.
The penalties block any assets the four officials may have in U.S. jurisdictions and bar their entry into the U.S. They also include a ban on most export licences, loans and credits to the agency.
Turkey tested system in October
The current administration had held off on imposing punitive sanctions outside of the fighter program for months, in part to give Turkish officials time to reconsider deploying it and, some suspect, due to U.S. President Donald Trump’s personal relationship with Turkish leader Recep Tayyip Erdogan.
However, in past months Turkey has moved ahead with testing of the system drawing criticism from Congress and others who have demanded the sanctions be imposed under CAATSA, which mandates penalties for transactions deemed harmful to U.S. interests.
Coming just a month and-a-half before Biden assumes office, the sanctions pose a potential dilemma for the incoming administration, although the president-elect’s team has signaled it is opposed to Turkey’s use of the S-400 and the disunity within NATO it may cause.
Last month, Turkish Defence Minister Hulusi Akar said Turkey was prepared to discuss with the U.S. its “anxiety” over the interoperability of the S-400s and the F-35s.
The U.S. reacted cooly to the suggestion and Pompeo shortly thereafter pointedly did not meet with any Turkish government officials on a visit to Istanbul.
Turkey tested the missile defence system in October for the first time, drawing a condemnation from the Pentagon.
Ankara says it was forced to buy the Russian system because the U.S. refused to sell it American-made Patriot missiles. The Turkish government has also pointed to what it considers a double standard, as NATO member Greece uses Russian-made missiles.